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Martin Stein avatar

Creating a captive portal VM for Sculpt

Some 3 years ago, I worked on a minimal and disposable VM for Sculpt that is capable of viewing the landing page of a local network. In many networks, this is necessary in order to gain internet access and therefore even before being able to deploy third-party packages in Sculpt. This article is a briefly polished version of the tutorial I created back then. But it should still apply to newer Sculpt versions. It uses VirtualBox 5 and with TinyCore guest running Firefox.

Before starting, I'd also like to mention some additional recources created by Johannes Schlatow that accompany the tutorial:

If you find any bugs in the tutorial, please report them to me!

Set up TinyCore

Set up a VM

  • Go to the host shell

 sudo apt install virtualbox # we used virtualbox version 5.1.38
 virtualbox &
  • Go to the VirtualBox window

  • Create a new VM with network

    • Type: Linux

    • Version: Other Linux (64-bit)

    • RAM: 1G

    • HDD: create new, 1G, vdi, dynamic

  • Start the VM

  • Select Core-10.1.iso as initial disk of the VM

Prepare hard disk

  • Go to the VM shell (the following steps were created using

 [Enter]                              # boot to user shell
 tce-load -wi cfdisk grub-0.97-splash # download extensions cfdisk and grub
 sudo su                              # open root shell
 cfdisk /dev/sda                      # create partition on hard disk
 mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda1 # format partition
 rebuildfstab        # re-create file system table
 mount /mnt/sda1     # mount hard disk

Install grub

 mount /mnt/sr0                                     # mount disk drive
 mkdir -p /mnt/sda1/boot/grub /mnt/sda1/tce
 cp -p /mnt/sr0/boot/* /mnt/sda1/boot/              # install kernel, initrd
 cp -p /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/sda1/boot/grub/ # install grub
 touch /mnt/sda1/tce/mydata.tgz                     # file for TinyCore backup/restore
 vi /mnt/sda1/boot/grub/menu.lst                    # create grub menu config
  • Go to insert mode: i

  • Insert this

 default 0
 timeout 0
 title tinycore
 kernel /boot/vmlinuz quiet restore=sda1/tce
 initrd /boot/core.gz
  • Write and quit: [Esc]:wq

   root (hd0,0)
   setup (hd0)
  • Go to the VirtualBox Window

  • Remove ISO from VM disk drive

  • Restart VM

Set up GUI and Firefox

Basic set-up of GUI and Firefox

  • Go to the VM shell

  • Search: s

  • Select "xorg-7.7.tcz"

  • Install: qi

  • Quit: q

 tce-load -wi i3 firefox_getLatest
 vi /mnt/sda1/tce/onboot.lst
  • Insert mode: i

  • Replace firefox_getLatest.tcz with firefox.tcz

  • Write quit: [Esc]:wq

 rm -f /mnt/sda1/tce/optional/firefox_getLatest*'
 sudo reboot
  • Check that i3 welcome message appears

 [Right-Control]+[F1]          # switch to shell
 pkill Xorg                    # stop xorg, i3
 sudo mkdir /mnt/sda1/bin
 sudo vi /mnt/sda1/bin/browser # create script to keep Firefox running
  • Insert mode: i

  • Insert this

 while true; do                # restart Firefox everytime it gets closed
  • Write, quit: [Esc]:wq

 sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/browser
 vi /home/tc/.i3/config # configure i3
  • Insert mode: i

  • Replace content with this (created using docs/userguide in

 font -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-C-70-iso10646-1
 workspace_bar no           # disable i3 bar
 new_window bb              # disable window title and borders
 exec /mnt/sda1/bin/browser # start our custom browser script
  • Write, quit: [Esc]:wq

 vi /opt/.filetool.lst # configure TinyCore backup/restore mechanism
  • Insert mode: i

  • Replace content with this

  • Write, quit: [Esc]:wq

 sudo -b # backup configuration files to mydata.tgz
 sudo reboot
  • Check whether Firefox appears maximized, no borders, no title bar, no desktop bar, always restarting when closed

Customize Firefox

  • Go to the Firefox window in the VM

  • Open "Menu -> Preferences -> General"

  • Unset "Always check if Firefox is your default browser"

  • Go to "Home"

  • Set "Homepage and new windos" to "Custom URLs" and the URL to ""

  • Set "New Tabs" to "Firefox Home"

  • Remove all unnecesary items around the Firefox address bar (right-click on item and select "Remove from Toolbar")

 [Right-Control]+[F1] # switch to shell
 pkill browser        # stop browser script
 [Right-Control]+[F2] # switch back to Firefox
  • Close all tabs so Firefox closes

 [Right-Control]+[F1]                                      # switch to shell
 cd /home/tc/.mozilla/firefox/<SOME_CHARS>.default-release # go to Firefox profile dir
 mkdir chrome
 sudo vi chrome/userChrome.css
  • Insert mode: i

  • Insert this (disables Firefox tab bar)

 #TabsToolbar { visibility: collapse !important; }
  • Write, quit: [Esc]:wq

 sudo -b # back-up Firefox configuration
 sudo reboot
  • Check whether Firefox appears with the desired configuration and without a tab bar

Make VM resizable

Prepare original VM

 [Right-Control]+[F1] # switch to shell
 pkill Xorg           # stop xorg, i3, Firefox
 tce-load -wi openssh # we need the 'scp' command
  • Install graphics-4.19.10-tinycore.tcz using the method we used for xorg-7.7 (this installs DRM required by vboxvideo)

 vi /home/tc/.xsession add this
  • Insert mode: i

  • Append this at the end

 setxkbmap -layout "de" -variant "nodeadkeys"' # set your keyboard layout here
 VBoxClient --display                          # starts vbox display client for VM resizing
 exec i3                                       # execute i3 explicitely
  • Write and quit: [Esc]:wq -b # backup xorg configuration
 sudo halt
  • Go to the VirtualBox window

  • Close the VM (switch off)

Build and archive guest additions in second VM

You may skip this step if you already have the guest-additions extension-files. (can be downloaded:

  • Clone VM (the second VM is only for creating a guest additions extension without polluting the first VM and can be thrown away afterwards)

  • Insert VBoxGuestAdditions_6.0.4.iso into disk drive of second VM

  • Set ram of second VM to 2G

  • Start second VM

  • Go to window of second VM

 [Right-Control]+[F1]                  # switch to shell
 pkill Xorg                            # stop xorg, i3, Firefox
 tce-load -wi linux-kernel-sources-env           # install Linux kernel sources
 mount /mnt/sr0

 # remember a time from before building guest additions
 sudo touch /tmp/mark
 sudo /mnt/sr0/ # build guest additions

 # write list of files created by the guest additions
 find /opt /sbin /usr /lib /etc -cnewer /tmp/mark -not -type d > /tmp/files
  • You can now check whether resizing works by executing startx

 sudo tar -T /tmp/files -czvf /mnt/sda1/vboxga604.tar.gz    # archive all files of the list
 scp /mnt/sda1/vboxga604.tar.gz <HOST_USER>@<HOST_IP>:/tmp/ # send archive from VM to host
 sudo halt
  • Go to the VirtualBox window

  • Close second VM (switch off)

Create guest additions extension from archive

You may skip this step if you already have the guest-additions extension-file.

  • Go to the shell of your host

 mkdir /tmp/vboxga604
 cd /tmp/vboxga604
 tar -xf /tmp/vboxga604.tar.gz
 cd /tmp
 mksquashfs vboxga604/ ~/vboxga604.tcz
 cd ~
 md5sum vboxga604.tcz > vboxga604.tcz.md5.txt

Install guest additions extension

  • Go to the VirtualBox window

  • Start first VM

  • Go to window of first VM

 [Right-Control]+[F1]                            # switch to shell
 pkill Xorg                                      # stop xorg, i3, Firefox
 scp <HOST_USER>@<HOST_IP>:/tmp/vboxga604.tcz* \ # send extension from host to VM
 rm -f /mnt/sda1/tce/optional/openssh*           # uninstall openSSH
 vi /mnt/sda1/tce/onboot.lst                     # install guest additions extension
  • Insert mode: i

  • Replace 'openssh.tcz' with vboxga604.tcz

  • Write quit: [Esc]:wq

 sudo reboot
  • Check whether VM is resizable